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The documents listed in the bibliography below provide detailed explanation of the technical issues surrounding the blackouts. Selected items will be linked for on-line access as they are digitized; in the meantime they may be used to guide visitors to library and archival resources.


Hirsh, Richard F. 1989. Technology and Transformation in the American Electric Utility Industry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hughes, Thomas P. 1979. "Technological History and Technical Problems." In Science, Technology and the Human Prospect: Proceedings of the Edison Centennial Symposium. Edited by Chauncey Starr and Philip C. Ritterbush. New York: Pergamon Press, 1979.

[open document in Adobe Acrobat]Rudolph, Richard and Scott Ridley. 1986. Power Struggle: The Hundred-Year War over Electricity. New York: Harper & Row.

Rubinstein, Ellis and Gordon D. Friedlander. March 1975. "Cash Crunch Dims Power Prospects." IEEE Spectrum: 40-44.

Con Edison

Lurkis, Alexander. 1982. The Power Brink: Con Edison, A Centennial of Electricity. New York: Icare Press.


Ewart, D.N. April 1978. "Whys and Wherefores of Power System Blackouts." IEEE Spectrum: 36-41.

Albrecht, Paul F. August 1978. "Evaluating System Reliability." IEEE Spectrum: 43-47.

Concordia, Charles. August 1968. "Considerations in Planning for Reliable Electric Service." IEEE Spectrum: 71-76.

Fink, Lester H. and Kjell Carlsen. March 1978. "Operating under Stress and Strain." IEEE Spectrum: 48-53.

Park, R.H. May 1978. "Hardware and Software for System Protection: A Survey of Control Techniques that Minimize Both the Occurence and the Duration of Blackouts." IEEE Spectrum: 40-45.

U.S. Federal Power Commission. nd. [April 1977?] "Reports on Electric Power Disturbances during the First Quarter of 1977." Typed ms. Courtesy of U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Library.


Ewald, Earl and D. W. Angland. April 1964. "Regional Integration of Electric Power Systems." IEEE Spectrum: 96-101.

Happ, H.H. March 1973. "Power Pools and Superpools." IEEE Spectrum: 54-61.

Hicks, K.L. November 1967. "Disaster Control Coordination for Large Interconnected Systems." IEEE Spectrum: 52-55.

Rincliffe, R.G. January 1967. "Planning and Operation of a Large Power Pool." IEEE Spectrum: 91-96.

Demand and Load Management

Balet, W.J. and R.L. Webb. September 1966. "Reactive Power Control in a Metro System." IEEE Spectrum: 141-144.

Burby, Raymond, et. al. 1985. Electric Utility Load Management: Marketing Strategies and Tactics. Totowa: Rowman & Allanheld.

[open document in Adobe Acrobat]Schur, Sam, Calvin C. Burwell, Warren D. Devine, Jr. and Sidney Sonenblum. 1990. Electricity in the American Economy: Agent of Technological Progress. New York: Greenwood Press.

Energy, Environment, Growth & Alternatives

Friedlander, Gordon D. November 1970. "Power, Pollution, and the Imperilled Environment." IEEE Spectrum: 40-50.

Lovins, Amory B. "Energy Strategy: The Road Not Taken?" Foreign Affairs.

Nagel, T.J. "Electric Power's Role in the U.S. Energy Crisis." July 1974. IEEE Spectrum: 69-72.

Roberts, Marc J. and Jeremy S. Bluhm. 1981. The Choices of Power: Utilities Face the Environmental Challenge. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Schweppe, Fred C. July 1978. "Power Systems '2000': Hierarchical Control Strategies." IEEE Spectrum: 42-47.


Hyman, Leonard S. 1985. America's Electric Utilities: Past, Present and Future. 2nd Ed. Arlington: Public Utilities Reports, Inc.

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. 1988. Fourth Edition. IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms. New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.


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jts{27 June 2000}